screen-shot-2016-09-23-at-1-25-56-pm

Chopra Center Program Associated with Reduction in Markers Linked to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Participants

screen-shot-2016-09-23-at-1-18-00-pmSenior Author, Dr. Deepak Chopra, Professor of Consciousness Studies, Sofia University

Integrative medicine practices, such as meditation and Ayurveda, are popular but their effects on human physiology are not yet fully understood. Ayurveda, a Sanskrit word that means the ‘Science of Life’ or the ‘Science of Perfect Health’, is the traditional system of personalized medicine from India that emphasizes disease prevention and health promotion.

Panchakarma, Ayurvedic medicine’s principle cleansing and rejuvenation protocols, incorporates various treatment modalities such as a vegetarian diet, Ayurvedic herbs, meditation, yoga, oil massage, heat therapies, and other specialized treatments that are thought to promote general health and well-being1.

screen-shot-2016-09-23-at-1-19-13-pm

While numerous studies have examined the health and well-being benefits of practices such as meditation, yoga, Ayurvedic herbs and diet, few studies have examined the effects of traditional medical protocols that employ several of these modalities concurrently in one program. To date, very few controlled studies on Panchakarma have been undertaken. Previous studies on Panchakarma have reported improved psychosocial outcomes in healthy subjects as well as improved psychological parameters in depressed patients2,3.

However, little evidence has been reported regarding the physiological and metabolic effects of such treatments. Thus, given interest in integrative therapies with the general public and medical community is steadily increasing, there is a burgeoning need for additional studies that investigate Ayurvedic medicine with modern scientific techniques to further elucidate the relevant biological effects and mechanisms related to these practices.

screen-shot-2016-09-23-at-1-19-59-pm

In a controlled clinical trial, participants in the Chopra Center’s six-day Ayurvedic immersion program, Perfect Health, that featured a vegetarian diet, meditation, yoga, herbs, and massages, experienced measurable decreases in a set of blood-based metabolites associated with inflammation, cardiovascular disease risk, and cholesterol regulation.

The findings, published in the September 9 issue of Scientific Reports, represent a rare attempt to use metabolic biomarkers to assess the reported health benefits of integrative medicine and holistic practices. Chopra Center co-founder Deepak Chopra, MD, was the senior author of the study. Dr. Chopra is also a clinical professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a noted proponent of integrative medicine.

screen-shot-2016-09-23-at-1-20-30-pm

“It appears that a one-week Panchakarma-based program can significantly alter the metabolic profile of the person undergoing it,” said Chopra. “As part of our strategy to create a framework for whole systems biology research, our next step will be to correlate these changes with both gene expression and psychological health.”

Panchakarma refers to an ancient and elegant mind-body cleansing system experienced by participants in the Perfect Health program, combining herbal therapies, massage, and other interventions.

To read the full study, click here.

To learn more about the Chopra Center’s Perfect Health program and sign up for a workshop, click here.

screen-shot-2016-09-16-at-4-12-04-pm

Exploring Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences

screen-shot-2016-09-16-at-4-10-12-pm

Excerpt from Clusters of Individual Experiences form a Contiuum of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences in Adults by Jeffrey A. Martin of Sofia University’s Transformative Technology Lab

Persistent forms of nondual awareness, enlightenment, mystical experience, and so forth
(Persistent Non-Symbolic Experience) have been reported since antiquity. Though sporadic research has been performed on them, the research reported here represents the initial report from the first larger scale cognitive psychology study of this population.
Introduction
A category of human experience has been reported in the writings of philosophers and mystics since antiquity (Hanson, 1991; Stace, 1960). It goes by many names, including: nondual awareness, enlightenment, mystical experience, peak experience, transcendental experience, the peace that passeth understanding, unity consciousness, union with God, and so forth ( Levin & Steele, 2005; MacDonald, 2000; Thomas & Cooper, 1980).
These types of experiences, referred to collectively in this paper as Persistent Non -Symbolic Experience (PNSE), are often reported in spiritual and religious individuals; however, atheists and agnostics also report them (Newberg, d’Aquili, & Rause, 2001; Newberg & Waldman, 2006, 2009).
screen-shot-2016-09-16-at-4-12-04-pm
image source: unknown
Virtually all information about these experiences comes from a highly variable self-reported data (McGinn, 1991; Stace, 1960). These types of experiences have traditionally been regarded as very difficult to examine scientifically. Given the number and range of research tools available it seems increasingly possible to rigorously examine these types of psychological claims. The present research set out to determine testable claims and collect detailed first person data in a way that side-stepped the religious, cultural, and other contextual ways in which PNSE is often described. Questions were asked that related to: sense of self, cognition, emotion, memory, and perception. The results suggested that similar psychological claims, in distinct groupings, were present across individuals self-reporting PNSE. These distinct groupings each appeared to offer a specific flavor of the experience.
Defining the Phrase: Persistent Non-Symbolic Experience (PNSE)
It was difficult to gain cooperation from this research population. They generally believed they would not and could not be understood scientifically. Finding language that did not push them away during their initial introduction to the research program was extremely important. Over the course of the research I tested a wide variety of words and phrases to find one that wold be widely accepted by them.
screen-shot-2016-09-16-at-4-25-09-pm
image source: Alex Grey
The term non-symbolic was derived from Cook-Greuter’s (2000) research involving ego development and transcendence. While she generally favored the word postsymbolic, she used a term related to non-symbolic in a 2000 paper, in the following context:
Eastern psychologies have often pointed to the nonsymbolically mediated, or immediate ways of knowing as the only kind of knowing that can lead to enlightenment or true insight into human nature. In fact, they cnsider our additiction to language-mediated, discursive thought as a major hurdle in realizing the true or divine Self, or union with the Ground. (Cook-Greuter, p.230).
To read more of this article, click here.

Developments in the Neuroscience of Dreams

by Global PhD student, Bryrony Shaw

Humans spend roughly one third of their lives in bed sleeping and dreaming. Dreams have
been a source of fascination to many philosophers and psychologists. Main purpose of this
short review is to explore the history of dreams and the scientists fascinated by them and to discuss developments in neuroscience as they relate to dreams and sleep. I discuss differences between approaches between Sigmund Freud and Gustav Jung. This historical comparison suggests certain parallels between the psychologists and the philosophers. I examine perspectives on dreaming from the philosophers Rene Descartes, Aristotle and Plato.
Screen Shot 2016-09-09 at 2.03.17 PM.png
EARLY PHILOSOPHERS AND DREAMS
Plato was one of the first philosophers to discuss dreams. In “The Republic,” Plato discusses dreams in book IX. He is the first to discuss dreams and connect them to psychological underpinnings of the dreamer: “I can imagine a healthy man who lives in harmony with himself. He goes to sleep only after he has summoned up the rational element in his soul, nourishing it with fair thoughts and precepts” (Plato, 1985, p. 260). Plato argues the dreams of a healthy man will have less violent content than the dreams of a man “wild and brutish, sated by food and drink” (p. 260). Both Plato and Aristotle believed food or digestion affected sleep and dreaming.
screen-shot-2016-09-09-at-1-57-47-pm
THE PSYCHOANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS
Sigmund Freud was the first to write a whole book about dream interpretation (something
Aristotle disagreed with; Aristotle did not believe there was any predictive element to the act of dreaming), and his hypothesis involved dreams as a manifestation of wish fulfillment. Freud’s theory on dreams helped substantiate his theory of the unconscious, and emphasized the importance of the unconscious as evidenced by the dream world.
DEVELOPMENTS IN NEUROSCIENCE RELATING TO DREAMS
screen-shot-2016-09-09-at-2-01-45-pm
In 1953 dreams became more than a topic of conversation between philosophers,
psychologists and dreamers. A student and his professor in a sleep laboratory at the
University of Chicago discovered Rapid Eye Movement (REM). REM was discovered to not
only be apparent during sleep, but it seemed to be connected with humans as they were
dreaming. People were woken during periods of REM and asked to report on their dreams.
“In the years since Aserinsky & Kleitman’s discovery, a considerable amount of dependable information has been gathered about the physiology of sleeping and of dreaming” (Shafton, 1995, p. 11). It has been discovered since these experiments that dreaming does not only occur during REM sleep.
To read more of this article click here.

Study Reveals Benefits of Vacation and Meditation

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 6.04.02 PMThe meditation program included in this study was designed by Deepak Chopra, MD, who did not participate in data collection or analysis. Dr. Chopra was recently appointed Professor of Consciousness Studies here at Sofia University. The study below was funded by the non-profit The Chopra Foundation, and Marc and Lynn Benioff.

Scientists from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, the University of California, San Francisco, and Harvard Medical School used a rigorous study design to assess the biological impact of meditation compared to vacation.

They examined the effect of meditation on gene expression patterns in both novice and regular mediators. The researchers found that a resort vacation provides a strong and immediate impact on molecular networks associated with stress and immune pathways, in addition to short-term improvements in well-being, as measured by feelings of vitality and distress.

A meditation retreat, for those who already used meditation regularly, was associated with molecular networks characterized by antiviral activity. The molecular signature of long-term meditators was distinct from the non-meditating vacationers. The study was published today in Springer Nature’s journal Translational Psychiatry.

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 4.57.02 PM

The study involved 94 healthy women, aged 30-60. Sixty-four women were recruited who were not regular meditators. Participants stayed at the same resort in California for six days, and randomized so that half were simply on vacation while the other half joined a meditation training program run by the Chopra Center for Well Being.

For greater insight into the long-term effects of what scientists dubbed the “meditation effect” compared to the “vacation effect,” the team also studied a group of 30 experienced meditators who were already enrolled in the retreat that week. Researchers collected blood samples, and surveys, from all participants immediately before and after their stay, as well as surveys one month and ten months later.

“In the spirit of other research efforts we have pioneered with other groups, this work underscores the importance of studies focused on healthy people,” said Eric Schadt, PhD, senior author on the paper and the Jean C. and James W. Crystal Professor of Genomics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and Founding Director of the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology. “By combining an interrogation of gene networks with advanced data analysis and statistics, we have generated clinically meaningful information about stress and aging that is relevant to the broader population.”

Screen Shot 2016-09-01 at 5.57.44 PM

The research team examined the changes in 20,000 genes to determine which types of genes were changing before and after the resort experience. Scientists performed an integrative transcriptomic analysis, comparing gene expression networks across all three groups of participants and finding unique molecular profiles and pathway enrichment patterns.

Study results show that all groups — novice meditators, experienced meditators, and vacationers — had significant changes in molecular network patterns after the week at the resort, with a clear signature distinguishing baseline from post-vacation biology. The most notable changes in gene activity were related to stress response and immune function.

Researchers assessed self-reported measures of well being. While all groups showed improvements up to one month later, the novice meditators had fewer symptoms of depression and less stress much longer than the non-meditating vacationers. The psychological effects appear to be enduring and it is unknown how much of this longer lasting benefit may be due to continued practice or lasting changes in how people view events in their lives.

“It’s intuitive that taking a vacation reduces biological processes related to stress, but it was still impressive to see the large changes in gene expression from being away from the busy pace of life, in a relaxing environment, in such a short period of time. These findings will have to be replicated to see if the changes are reliably invoked under the same circumstances, in future studies, and compared to an at-home control group,” said Elissa S. Epel, PhD, Professor of Psychiatry at University of California, San Francisco and first author of the study.

“Based on our results, the benefit we experience from meditation isn’t strictly psychological; there is a clear and quantifiable change in how our bodies function,” said Rudolph Tanzi, PhD, the Joseph P. and Rose F. Kennedy Professor of Neurology at Harvard University, and Director of the Genetics and Aging Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. “Meditation seems to provide relief for our immune systems, easing the day-to-day stress of a body constantly trying to protect itself. The prediction is that this would then lead to healthier aging.”

About the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is an international leader in medical and scientific training, biomedical research, and patient care. It is the medical school for the Mount Sinai Health System, an integrated health care system which includes seven hospitals and an expanding ambulatory network serving approximately 4 million patients per year.

The School has more than 1,800 students in MD, PhD, and Master’s programs and post-doctoral fellowships; more than 5,600 faculty members; over 2,000 residents and fellows; and 23 clinical and research institutes and 34 academic departments. It is ranked among the highest in the nation in National Institutes of Health funding per principal investigator. The School was the first medical school in the country to create a progressive admissions approach for students who seek early assurance of admission through the FlexMed program.

The Graduate School of Biomedical Science trains PhD and MD/PhD students, and offers master’s-level programs in areas such as genetic counseling, clinical research, biomedical sciences, and public health, and an online master’s degree in health care delivery leadership. The seamless connections between our medical school, graduate school, and hospital campuses provide an extraordinary environment for translating scientific discoveries into clinical treatments.

For more information, visit http://icahn.mssm.edu or find the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and LinkedIn.

Paper cited:

Elissa S. Epel, et al. Meditation and vacation effects impact disease-associated molecular phenotypes. Translational Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1038/tp.2016.164

Inquiry into Self-Transcendence

From Ecological, Non-Ecological, and Embodied Self-Transcendence in Introspection by Olga Louchakova-Schwartz
Screen Shot 2016-08-26 at 2.08.33 PM
The principle of transcendence, implicit in any consciousness, sets the stage for a variety of psychological experiences indispensable to being human. Can we fully claim the knowledge of all forms of psychological self-transcendence?
I will present the findings concerning the robust introspective self-experience in Christian prayer, whereby transcendence is internal, and is realized as an embodied stratified self-constitution engaging the internal I-Thou. Two different forms of experience, egological and non-egological, contribute to shaping the important religious concepts of the Ladder and of the Ascent of the Soul.
This experience leads to self-knowledge, and to positive characterological transformation, which in turn heals the traces of prior traumas and integrate the “shadow”. Using the
example of this experience, I will show how the psychology of transcendence pushes the boundaries of neuroscience by challenging the latter to expand its old theories and generate new ones, such as non-linear dynamics or neuroquantology.
 
Introspection in Religious Life
Towards such typology of religious introspection, my present study aimed to explore whether religious introspection has stable structures which can be possibly involved in the formation of religious experience which lead to the emergence of a religious metaphysical concept.
As distinct from the highly formalized, prescriptive phenomenological structures in various kinds of meditation which are intended to specifically modify the mind, I was interested in the modes of introspection which have more flexibility, be less regimented and more natural, and aim at self-knowledge in context of religious ideation. In other words, I was interested how the famous injunction of the Oracle of Delphi, “know thyself”, would translate into a theological or metaphysical idea. As briefly mentioned above, there exists a significant difference  between introspective self-transcendence in religious or spiritual practice, and regular psychological or philosophical (non-religious) introspection.
Obviously, in non-religious, non-metaphysical introspection, the only agent is the ordinary psychological self, without much depth; in religious or metaphysical introspection, the subjects posits and is intent upon the Ultimate Reality, or the presence of God within, with all the modifications of identity which take place while introspection is pursued, and further, in the final self-transcendence when Deity or Ultimate Reality are actualized in introspective experience.  
Notably, these states are not only conceived theologically, but also lived empirically: God is first experienced within as the Other, and then this internal I-Thou is transformed into an experience of Union, which has been described as : “I am not, but He is, and in that, somehow, I am” – an ultimate formula of self-transcendence. From personal experience and the experience of spiritual counseling and teaching, I suspected that the journey between the natural state of self-awareness and this final self-transcendence offers many possibilities to confirm or generate religious ideas, and I needed to establish a specific bond between the two.
Click here to read more of this article.
Screen Shot 2016-08-19 at 3.41.14 PM

Can Guided Meditation Help Clarify Life Purpose?

By Kimberly Anne Christensen, Ph.D. (c)

Screen Shot 2016-08-19 at 3.32.48 PM

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the connection between guided meditation and life purpose for those who use meditative practices.

In this study, guided meditation will generally be defined as the practice of using spoke words, music, or visual imagery to access information from the subconscious psyche, or universal intelligence of the collective consciousness. Life purpose will generally be defined as your soul’s unique mission to serve self, and others, from a state of unconditional love.

I believe that the phenomena of guided meditation is a waypoint, or bridge, that allows us to access the intelligence of the conscious and subconscious states of self, as well as the universal or collective consciousness of the group. The concept of using guided meditation to access data on life purpose, is one that I believe is essential if we are to honor ourselves as unique individuals who desire to live a meaningful, and meaning-filled life, using our innate gifts at the highest level for service to humanity.

Relevancy, or need for the study of life purpose, (Creswell, 2007) comes from several qualitative studies on calling and vocation in the journals of career assessment, happiness studies, counseling psychology, and vocational studies. One of the many research findings on calling and vocation, speak to the need of today’s workers to connect to something in their life, beyond better wages. Duffy, Dik, and Eldgridge (2009) report that:

Clients experiencing dissatisfaction in their careers often yearn for something that goes beyond better wages of more supportive supervisors. Many want to experience a calling or vocation. Increasingly, popular authors, and scholars have advocated reclaiming the constructs of calling or vocation in career and life planning. Such attention has helped raise awareness of these constructs and has catalyzed research and theory on their role in career decision making. (p. 626).

     The use of the terms calling and vocation, although not found in the data of this study, do find representation within my study as something more that wants to come through you.

Screen Shot 2016-08-19 at 3.32.34 PM

My philosophical paradigm is both transformative and participatory, with the goal of examining issues of power, and the underlying assumptions that guide our lives in which we are participants. John Creswell (2007) offers four key features of an advocacy or participatory practice that were relevant in my study.

Beginning with the first key, I believe that this study has the power to change how we participate and move forward in our career and life experiences, by looking within to find life direction. Second, through the process of connecting to the universal intelligence of the collective unconscious, I believe that individuals can be freed from the constraints of outside influences when making life and career choices as truths relevant only to themselves can be accessed. Third, by connecting with the subconscious self, individuals are able to emancipate themselves from mental and emotional beliefs that have limited self-development and self-determination. Fourth, by using a collaborative model, participants become co-researchers in the work. An example of this participatory model is that my definition for life purpose was built from the responses of the participants in the study (Creswell, p. 22).

Click here to read more of the article.

 

The Benefits of Communing with Nature

from Intentional Kayaking: Awakening to Intimacy Within the Natural World by Nancy Rowe, Ph.D.

Intimacy Within our Earth Community: An Introduction to this Exploration

Screen Shot 2016-08-12 at 2.21.01 PM

This longing for intimacy, for reciprocity and the experience of aliveness and connection with other beings within a living landscape, is not surprising as the “natural world is the larger sacred community to which we belong” (Berry, 1990, p. 81). We long for relationship and to feel part of the living landscape as co-participants in the unfolding inter-connectedness of life. Perhaps it is because “there is no such thing as human community without the earth and the soil and the air and the water and all living forms. Humans are woven into this larger community” (Raymond, 2010, p. 59).

Perhaps we are searching for our true home, our place within “the family of things” (Oliver, 1992) or for a wholesome connection to our outer landscape that embraces both individual and planetary life. As Linda Hogan (1995) expressed in her book, Dwellings,
We are looking for a tongue that speaks with reverence of life,
searching for an ecology of mind. Without it, we have no home,
have no place of our own within creation. … We want a language that… returns us to our own sacredness, to a self-love and respect that will
carry out to others. (p. 60)
This article blends personal quest with scholarship from transpersonal psychology, spirituality, nature writing, and philosophy. It highlights the results of a thematic
content analysis of journal entries made during a week of kayaking with the expressed intention of being in better relationship with a specific lake community. I share how this act shifted my lived experience of being part of the lake community and how this contributed to a more transpersonal and conscious engagement with my immediate environment. Finally, I make the case that we can all achieve this intimacy by cultivating what Maslow (1970) referred to as the plateau-experience, and by incorporating the wisdom of mystics and nature writers.
11215741555_cebfb17859_bPeak Experiences in Nature
What are peak experiences and how do they contribute to awakening to intimacy within the natural world? Peak experiences have been described as feelings of love, well-being, awe, wonder, unity, awareness, and higher consciousness. They come on suddenly and last only a short time, although their effect can last a life time (Maslow, 2011). These transpersonal moments can be triggered through a variety of experiences, such as sports, sex, meditation, nature encounters, creative exploration, and meditation (Taylor, 2012). They have been characterized by “euphoria, noesis, harmony or union with the universe, a profound sense of beauty and love, and ineffability” (Davis, 1998).
Peak experiences often result in increased clarity and compassion as well as refined levels of beauty and truth (Swan 2010). People who have been awakened in these sudden ways sometimes report an increased love of nature, fresh life perspectives, and transformed lives (Coburn, 2006;  Laski, 1962; Swan, 1990).
Poets have often portrayed peak experiences as moments of ecstasy and deep mystical experiences (Frager & Fadiman, 2005). Many scholars believe that peak experiences cannot be created but can be triggered by an experience such as an intense, inspiring occurrence (Frager & Fadiman, 2005; Goswami, 1993 ) or amplified by places such as sacred sites (Swan, 1990). Taylor (2012), who has preferred to use the term “awakening experiences” (p. 74), suggested that certain conditions are conducive for having peak experiences and proposes a psychological-energetic theory of awakening.

These awakening experiences include moments when perceptions and awareness become more intensified and expanded.

Five key themes—harmony, connectedness, intention, aliveness, and reciprocity of process—emerged from their phenomenological study, and they proposed that these themes might be true in other encounters with cetaceans and possibly universal to all wild-animal- triggered peaks. They concluded that “connecting with another being, and ultimately, being fully connected with oneself, is the underlying desire of the cetacean-
triggered peak experience” (p. 169) and that this experience can bring a sense of reciprocity, harmony, aliveness, and connectedness to the human participant.
About Nancy Rowe, Ph.D.: Nancy Rowe is the chairperson for Sofia University’s Global Master of Arts in Transpersonal Psychology program. In addition to teaching, Nancy’s research has led her to develop the curriculum for the new Eco-Psychology specialization within the Global MA in Transpersonal Psychology program.